To follow this course series you will need:
- A Pentium Based system
- At least 128MB Ram and 2GB hard drive
- You will need the latest version of Ubuntu Server, you can download Ubuntu from here
Burning the Ubuntu server to a CD
There is a complete help file here, to help you burn your CD, anyway if you have any problems send us a message and we will try to help.
You have the Software, and the hardware ... ready to go.
Insert the CD on your CD drive and Press any key to boot from CD... yes after a few seconds you will see the welcome screen Below.Then choose Install to the hard disk.
Choose the language.
Choose your country.
If you want the program to detect the keyboard automatically, select yes. Next the installer will ask you to hit a specified key( in this way it will detect your keyboard).
After the keyboard detection and configuration, the rest of your software should be automatically recognized and installed, there are some exceptions:
WiFi network cards and or Graphical adapters, may need configuration later.
Automatic Network Configuration.
If you are connecting the server directly to the router, or you have a DHCP server, the configuration will be done automatically.
When setting up a server usually you will need a static IP address, at the moment should be OK with a Dynamic IP address.
Don't remember the difference between static IP and dynamic IP click here
Manual Network Configuration.
Select configure network manually and enter the IP address you like to use.
Every IP needs a Net Mask and most IP addresses can use the default net mask.(Select contiunue)
In this step the installer will ask you to enter your default gateway, it will be the address of your router, in doubt ask your network administrator, if you are the administrator don't ask anyone :).
The DNS server, allows you to reach other computers on the internet by their names, instead of their IP addressess. If you are in a small network your ISP provides you the DNS .
Another alternative is to use Open DNS servers they are really fast, and can help to speed up your internet connection.
Open DNS Servers.
Hostname for the system.
Now you are asked to enter the name from your system.
Configuring the hard drive.
It is one of the most important steps, as a professional you must now all about partitioning , file systems etc, please pay attention to the following steps.
What is Partitioning?
Is the process of dividing the hard disk space in to chunks, so it can be used by the operating system or different users.
Even if the entire disk is intended to be left in one piece , it must be partitioned so the operating
so the operating system knows the layout.
Logical Volumes (LVM).
- Limited in space a maximum of 20 partitions can be done.
- They not very flexible, if for some reason you need to resize a partition it is a little complicated and you may loose some information.
- You can create an unlimited number of logical volumes.
- Logical volumes are very easy to resize.
- It doesn't have a one to one relation with the hard drive, you can create a logical volume that uses 3 hard disks at the same time.
state of a volume at a given point in time, which makes backing up data on a logical volume
very convenient. This is done in a very clever way, so that the snapshot uses only a
fraction of the disk space of the original volume.
Logical Volumes are not bootable, you will need to create at least one traditional partition to boot your server.
How you want to layout your server hard drive ?
There are several file directories that are generally recommended to have their own partition:
- /Boot : your /boot partition is very important, at least 100MB and Traditional partition.
- / : the /root file system contains everything that hasn't been split off to another partition 8gb are usually enough.
- /var: is used by your server to store information Dynamically, used by your printer cue etc 4gb .
- /home: The home /file system is allocated for every user in the system is where the user store all the files, it is very dynamic make sure is allocated its own partition.
- /srv: It is used by the Apache web server and FTP servers to store information, Very Dynamic aswell.
File Systems. Info from WIKI
- Ext3 : or third extended filesystem is a journaled file system that is commonly used by the Linux operating system. It is the default file system for many popular Linux distributions. Stephen Tweedie first revealed that he was working on extending ext2 in a February 1999 kernel mailing list posting and the filesystem was merged with the mainline Linux kernel in November 2001 from 2.4.15 onward
- Ext2 : or second extended file system is a file system for the Linux kernel. It was initially designed by Rémy Card as a replacement for the extended file system (ext). It is fast enough that it is used as the benchmarking standard. Although ext2 is not a journaling file system, its successor, ext3, provides journaling and is almost completely compatible with ext2.
- ReiserFS : is a general-purpose, journaled computer file system designed and implemented by a team at Namesys led by Hans Reiser. ReiserFS is currently supported on Linux. Introduced in version 2.4.1 of the Linux kernel, it was the first journaling file system to be included in the standard kernel. ReiserFS is the default file system on the Elive, Xandros, Yoper, Linspire, GoboLinux and Kurumin Linux Linux distributions. ReiserFS was the default file system in Novell's SUSE Linux Enterprise until Novell decided to move to ext3 on October 12, 2006 for future releases
- XFS : is a high-performance journaling file system created by Silicon Graphics, originally for their IRIX operating system and later ported to Linux kernel.
- Ext4 : or fourth extended filesystem is a journaled file system in development, designed as a backwards-compatible replacement of the ext3 filesystem.
- FAT : vfat, and NTFS file systems allow you to create a multiboot environment for
a computer on which both Windows and Linux are installed. The purpose of these file
systems is to access files stored in Windows partitions. You don’t need them on a
Now you know a little more about partition and different options, the installer gives you 3 options.
- Guided - use entire disk: This is the easiest option. It offers a guided installation of yourhard disk, based on traditional partitions.
- Guided - use entire disk and set up LVM: This configuration option is a bit more complex.It offers you a wizard that allows you to create an LVM-based disk configuration.
- Manual: Use this procedure if you’re sure you know what you are doing and you don’tneed the help of any wizard.
Using the Guided Partitioning Procedure.
Use this method if it is your first installation and you just need to see how Ubuntu works.
Select Guided - use entire disk .
You will get an overview of all your available hard disks and the size.Select the hard drive you want to partition and press enter.
The installer will show you the default layout of your system. Select yes and you are ready to go.
Your installation is almost complete there are a few steps left.
configure the system clock.
First enter the timezone for your clock settings.
After setting up the time zone, the installer asks how your computer’s clock is configured. Servers commonly use Coordinated Universal Time (UTC),
which is a generic time format that is the same worldwide, with the local time being
calculated as an offset from UTC. However, many PC-based systems use plain local time instead of UTC. Select the appropriate setting here and then press Enter.
Create a user account.
Enter the name for the user account you want to use, remember this is not the root it is just a normal user account, and enter the password twice.
Enter an HTTP proxy.
If you are using an HTTP proxy enter the details now, or you can ignore this step and just press next.
Choose your extras now, DNS server Lamp Server etc. Once all the packages have been installed then press restart and .......................
See you in the next Chapter